The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation, which transports blood into and out of the cardiac muscle. They are mainly composed of the left and right coronary arteries, both of which give off branches. Coronary arteries can also be categorized as epicardial (above the epicardium) and microvascular (close to the endocardium)
The left coronary artery arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart. It branches into two arteries and sometimes a third branch is formed at the fork, known as a ramus or intermediate artery.There is also the conus artery, which is only present in about 45 per cent of the human population, and which may provide collateral blood flow to the heart when the left anterior descending artery is occluded
In human anatomy, the left and right posterior communicating arteries are arteries at the base of the brain that form part of the circle of Willis. Each posterior communicating artery connects the three cerebral arteries of the same side. Anteriorly, it connects to the internal carotid artery (ICA) prior to the terminal bifurcation of the ICA into the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery. Posteriorly, it communicates with the posterior cerebral artery.
The PCA begins as a continuation of the posterior communicating artery in 70-90% of fetuses with the remainder of PCAs having a basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries become dominant and it finds a new origin in the basilar artery. About 20% of adults retain PCA origin from the posterior communicating artery, and in turn, the internal carotid arteries