The knee joint consists of an articulation between four bones: the femur, tibia, fibula and patella. There are four compartments to the knee. These are the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments, the patellofemoral compartment and the superior tibiofibular joint. The components of each of these compartments can suffer from repetitive strain, injury or disease.Running long distance can cause pain to the knee joint, as it is high-impact exercise.
One study came to the conclusion that 17% of adolescents with anterior knee pain (a common but benign self-limiting condition) report that their pain is associated with cold weather. The same study indicated that the main activities associated with anterior knee pain are sporting, stair climbing and walking, but also sitting. Some people with anterior knee pain tend to have generally colder knees, and such people also trend towards having to wear extra tights/long johns in the winter.
Although surgery has a role in repairing traumatic injuries and broken bones, surgeries such as arthroscopic lavage do not provide significant or lasting improvements to either pain or function to people with knee pain, and therefore should almost never be performed. Knee pain is pain caused by wear and tear, such as osteoarthritis or a meniscal tear. Effective treatments for knee pain include physical therapy exercises, pain-reducing drugs such as ibuprofen, joint stretching, knee replacement surgery, and weight loss in people who are overweight.
Acupuncture has also been found to be a potential treatment for those with knee pain. There is evidence that acupuncture can be useful in reducing acute pain after a total knee arthroplasty, reducing the need for certain prescription drugs such as opioids. For those suffering from chronic knee pain, defined as pain lasting more than 3 months, acupuncture was found to be effective in reducing pain up to 12 weeks after acupuncture treatment.