There are many causes of back pain, including blood vessels, internal organs, infections, mechanical, and autoimmune causes. Approximately 90 percent of people with back pain are diagnosed with nonspecific acute back pain in which there is no serious underlying pathology. In approximately 10 percent of people, cause can be identified through diagnostic imaging.Less than 2 percent are attributed to secondary factors, with metastatic cancers and serious infections, such as spinal osteomyelitis and epidural abscesses, accounting for around 1 percent
In as many as 90 percent of cases, no physiological causes or abnormalities on diagnostic tests can be found. Nonspecific back pain can be due to back strain/sprain. The cause is peripheral injury to muscle or ligaments. The patient may or may not recall the cause. The pain can present acutely but in some cases can persist, leading to chronic pain.
Spinal disk disease occurs when the nucleus pulposus, a gel-like material in the inner core of the vertebral disc, ruptures. Rupturing of the nucleus pulposus can lead to compression of nerve roots. Symptoms may be unilateral or bilateral, and correlate to the region of the spine affected. The most common region for spinal disk disease is at L4-L5 or L5-S1. The risk for lumbar disc disease is increased in overweight individuals due to the increased compressive force on the nucleus pulposus
Spondylosis, or degenerative arthritis of the spine, occurs when the intervertebral disc undergoes degenerative changes, causing the disc to fail at cushioning the vertebrae. There is an association between intervertebral disc space narrowing and lumbar spine pain. The space between the vertebrae becomes more narrow, resulting in compression and irritation of the nerves