Elections are conducted according to constitutional provisions and parliamentary legislation. These include the Representation of the People Act, 1950, which mainly deals with the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, and the Representation of the People Act, 1957 which deals, in detail, with all aspects of the conduct of elections and post-election disputes. The Supreme Court of India has held that where the enacted laws are silent or make insufficient provision to deal with a given situation in the conduct of elections, the Election Commission has the residuary powers under the Constitution to act in an appropriate manner.
From 1947 to 16 October 1989, there was one Chief Election Commissioner. From 1989 to 1 January 1990, there were two commissioners. In 1990 of January, two chief commissioners were abolished and election commission acted as a single-member body. Again by The Election Commissioner Amendment Act, 1993 made the Election Commission a multi-member body. On 1 October 1993, a further two commissioners were appointed. Decisions are made by majority vote.
General Elections (Lok sabha) : Members of Lok Sabha (House of the People) or the lower house of India’s Parliament is elected directly by voting, from a set of candidates who stands in their respective constituencies. Every adult citizen of India can vote only in their constituency. Candidates who win the Lok Sabha elections are called ‘Member of Parliament’ and hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers.
The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi, on matters relating to creation of new laws, removing or improving the existing laws that affect all citizens of India. This is the important election that takes place once in 5 years to elect 543 members for the Parliament (Lower house). A party needs 272 MPs to stake claim to form the Central Government. If a party doesn’t have 272 MPs on its own it can ally with other parties and form the government. Leader of the party/alliance takes oath as the Prime Minister.
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