Strep throat is spread by respiratory droplets from an infected person. It may be spread directly or by touching something that has droplets on it and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Some people may carry the bacteria without symptoms. It may also be spread by skin infected with group A strep. The diagnosis is made based on the results of a rapid antigen detection test or throat culture in those who have symptoms
Prevention is by washing hands and not sharing eating utensils. There is no vaccine for the disease. Treatment with antibiotics is only recommended in those with a confirmed diagnosis. Those infected should stay away from other people for at least 24 hours after starting treatment. Pain can be treated with paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen.Strep throat is a common bacterial infection in children. It is the cause of 15–40% of sore throats among children and 5–15% among adults. Cases are more common in late winter and early spring. Potential complications include rheumatic fever and peritonsillar abscess.
Strep throat is caused by group streptococcus .Other bacteria such as non–group streptococci and fusobacterium may also cause pharyngitis. It is spread by direct, close contact with an infected person; thus crowding, as may be found in the military and schools, increases the rate of transmission. Dried bacteria in dust are not infectious, although moist bacteria on toothbrushes or similar items can persist for up to fifteen days. Contaminated food can result in outbreaks, but this is rare. Of children with no signs or symptoms, 12% carry GAS in their pharynx, and, after treatment, approximately 15% of those remain positive, and are true “carriers”.
Tonsillectomy may be a reasonable preventive measure in those with frequent throat infections . However, the benefits are small and episodes typically lessen in time regardless of measures taken. Recurrent episodes of pharyngitis which test positive for GAS may also represent a person who is a chronic carrier of GAS who is getting recurrent viral infections. Treating people who have been exposed but who are without symptoms is not recommended.Treating people who are carriers of GAS is not recommended as the risk of spread and complications is low.